Semiconductor Technology – Applications and Operations

Semiconductor Technology

As the name implies, semiconductors lie somewhere between conductors and insulators. These are those materials that behave as conductors only under certain conditions. In other conditions, they behave as insulators. 

Most of the electronic devices, be it mobile, computers or video games, depend on the semiconductors for their functioning. You will find semiconductors at the heart of transistors and microprocessor chips. Anything that uses radio waves or is computerized depends on semiconductors.

Being such an important part of electrical gadgets, it is quite important to understand how these electrical components work. So as to understand more about the technology behind semiconductors, it makes sense to take a look at its four types.

Intrinsic

A semiconductor material made up of only a single type of atom is called an intrinsic semiconductor. Also known as an undoped semiconductor, It is one of the purest forms of semiconductors. These semiconductors are made from thermal components that can free electrons by lessening covalent bonds. However, you should keep in mind that these semiconductors might not function properly if the covalent bonds completely lose their electrons. From all the numerous uses intrinsic semiconductors have, one of their parts is to turn into a solid-state that would support electrical conductivity. Intrinsic semiconductors are used in manufacturing electronic components such as transistors and diodes.

Extrinsic

Another type of semiconductor is extrinsic. In fact, another name for extrinsic semiconductors is doped semiconductors. One of the main reasons these semiconductors are called so is because they are doped by a specific impurity. These doped impurities work to change the conductivity of the electrical components. It is for this reason that extrinsic semiconductors are best used in diodes, transistors and light emitters.  

Extrinsic semiconductors can be further divided into two more categories. These are:

N-Type

N-Type semiconductors primarily form a subdivision of extrinsic semiconductors. These semiconductors comprise electrons and holes. While electrons help to work as the majority carrier of electrical conductivity, holes are the minor carriers. The electrons and holes also signify that N-Type semiconductors have a larger concentration of electrons than holes.

P-Type 

P-Type semiconductors can be described as the exact opposite of N-Type semiconductors. These semiconductors have a larger concentration of holes, rather than electrons. it is for this reason, the holes act as the major carrier of electrical conductivity, while the electrons are the minor carrier. In certain situations, P-Type semiconductors also act as P-N junction where the N-Type semiconductor is present on one side of the gadget and the P-Type on the other.

You will need to consider several things before you choose the right semiconductor system for a particular application. As explained above, semiconductors can be extrinsic or intrinsic, P-type or N-type. Also important is to choose a reputed provider like TSMC. While you must take cost into consideration, but that should not be given such priority that you end up completely ignoring the quality aspect.